Planning, procedural facilitation, and narrative composition of junior high students with learning disabilities

Investigated the effects of planning time and procedural facilitation on the narrative writing compositions of 40 junior high school students with learning disabilities and 20 normally achieving students. Compositions dictated or written with no planning time, planning time only, or planning time plus procedural facilitation in the form of a story grammar cue card were compared. Dependent variables included both quality and quantity measures. Normally achieving Ss generally produced significantly higher quality and longer stories than Ss with learning disabilities who wrote or dictated stories. Significant differences between groups were no longer apparent, however, when time and structure were provided for planning narratives.

Montague, M., Graves, A., Leavell, A. G.
Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, Vol. 6, 219-224.
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Content Area: 
Grade Level: 
middle school
IDEA Disability Category: 
specific learning disability
Instructional Support: 
organize and plan