Investigated factors that predicted variability in responses to analytic and synthetic phonemic awareness training with kindergartners living in poverty. Found that spelling skills were the most consistent predictor of variability in phonemic awareness in response to instruction. Amount of exposure children had to the intervention contributed to individual differences in phonemic awareness, reading and spelling.
Emergent literary skills and training time uniquely predict variability in responses to phonemic awareness training in disadvantaged kindergarteners
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 82 (2), 93-115.
IDEA Disability Category:
major-other health impairment
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
opportunities to learn concepts
practice and reinforcement activities