In this study of concept mapping and expository writing, 12 eighth-grade students with reading difficulties composed descriptive essays under three conditions: no-map support, hand-map support, and computer-map support. Both hand-maps and computer-maps resulted in increases in number of words, number of T-units, and holistic writing scores. Students' attitudes toward writing were most positive in the computer-mapping condition.
Effects of hand-drawn and computer-generated concept mapping on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities
Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice, Vol. 17, 124-139.
IDEA Disability Category:
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
organize and plan
National Writing Next Standards:
editing and revising
planning and organizing
English Language Arts: