Students' performance on word reading tasks on a computer was tested in three conditions: 1) visual/on screen, 2) read by digitized voice (text-to-speech), and 3) combination with highlighting. Low-skilled students presented with text in a bimodal condition (condition 3) performed as well as skilled readers with visual presentation. The study cites neuropsychological performance research to support the redundant signals effect, i.e. research subjects respond more accurately and quickly to tones, lights, letters, and words when presented bimodally. A second set of psychology literature supports enhanced recall of stimuli presented bimodally.
Bimodal reading: Benefits of a talking computer for average and less skilled readers
Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 29, 271-279.
IDEA Disability Category:
major-other health impairment
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
multiple formats of text and notation
practice and reinforcement activities
National Reading Panel Standards:
English Language Arts:
Reading: Foundational Skills