The study employed a randomized controlled trial design to examine the effectiveness of using student-completed or researcher-completed graphic organizers on students' comprehension of expository text. The intervention was given 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. For the intervention groups, the researcher provided graphic organizer frames adapted from the Framing Routine (Ellis, 1999) and content materials from the science and social studies text. The control group students received regular instruction by the classroom teachers. Students in fourth grade from southern California suburban elementary schools participated in the study, which included28% English Learners, 37% qualified for Title I services, 8% eligible for speech and language services, and 5% with learning disabilities. There are no significant intervention effects regarding content materials. Students using student-completed graphic organizers outperformed students in researcher-completed and control groups on combined vocabulary and reading comprehension scores using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading test.
Using graphic organizers to improve at-risk students' reading comprehension of expository text
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 70(8-A), 2955.
IDEA Disability Category:
major-other health impairment
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
opportunities to learn concepts
organize and plan
practice and reinforcement activities