Technology supported math instruction for students with disabilities: Two decades of research

This paper presents a detailed view of the evidence over the past twenty years on the use of technologies to support mathematics instruction for students with math difficulty. It is part of an Internet-based resource at the Center for Implementing Technology in Education ( This paper explores research surrounding three basic types of mathematical knowledge that are recognized by mathematicians and cognitive scientists: declarative; conceptual; and procedural. The literature review was written in consultation with an expert panel of mathematics and educational technology researchers. It discusses the advantages and limitations of various forms of technology when used to advance the declarative, conceptual, and procedural knowledge of math for students with math difficulty.

Hasselbring, T., Lott, A., & Zydney, J.
Related Research
Content Area: 
IDEA Disability Category: 
emotional disturbance
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
Instructional Support: 
practice and reinforcement activities