This rigorous single-subject research study investigated the effects of alternative narration, highlighted text, picture/word-based captions, and interactive video searching features for improving comprehension of non-fiction academic video clips by students with intellectual disabilities. Two experiments combining multiple baseline across participants, alternating treatments, and elements of ABAC single-subject research designs across the primary and counterbalancing studies were employed to evaluate factual and inferential comprehension by 11 postsecondary participants with intellectual disabilities. Comprehension was measured by the number of correct oral (Level 1) and multiple choice (Level 2) responses after watching regular, non-adapted videos in the baseline phases, as well as after watching adapted videos and after searching videos for answers via hyperlinks in the treatment and maintenance phases. All adaptations were validated by existing research, a pilot study, and expert panel reviews. Visual analyses of data, percents of non-overlapping data, and statistical analyses via randomization tests were conducted. The major findings included: (a) the participants significantly improved their factual comprehension as well as showed relative but more modest increases in their inferential comprehension of non-fiction video content after viewing videos modified with alternative narrations and various captioning adaptations, which significantly improved further after students had an opportunity to search the video for answers and adjust their original oral responses; (b) adapted and interactive videos enabled students to provide the correct oral responses more frequently than with non-adapted videos, eliminating the need for a more concrete multiple choice questioning format; (c) the majority of participants performed equally well regardless of the type of the captions (highlighted text or picture/word-based); and (d) there was no significant difference in comprehension measures between motion videos and static images taken from the video for any of the participants. Subsequently, social validity interviews were conducted to determine participants' perceptions towards usefulness and effectiveness of various video adaptations. Additional findings are discussed with respect to the importance of randomization procedures and tests in single-subject research, study limitations, implications and recommendations for both practical implementation and future research. Overall, adapted videos offer innovative, universally designed solutions for legally required access and active participation of students with intellectual disabilities in grade and subject-linked academic general education curriculum (Agran, Cavin, Wehmeyer, & Palmer, 2006; Browder et al., 2007; Dymond & Orelove, 2001; IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001; Wehmeyer, Lance, and Bashinski, 2002).
Lights! Camera! Captions!: The effects of picture and/or word captioning adaptations, alternative narration, and interactive features on video comprehension by students with intellectual disabilities
Fairfax, VA: George Mason University College of Education and Human Development
IDEA Disability Category:
specific learning disability
multimedia products and projects
multiple formats of text and notation