Effects of hand-drawn and computer-generated concept mapping on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities

In this study of concept mapping and expository writing, 12 eighth-grade students with reading difficulties composed descriptive essays under three conditions: no-map support, hand-map support, and computer-map support. Both hand-maps and computer-maps resulted in increases in number of words, number of T-units, and holistic writing scores. Students' attitudes toward writing were most positive in the computer-mapping condition.

Author: 
Sturm, J. M., & Rankin-Erickson, J. L.
Year: 
2002
Source: 
Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice, Vol. 17, 124-139.
Type: 
Related Research
Content Area: 
writing
Grade Level: 
middle school
IDEA Disability Category: 
emotional disturbance
specific learning disability
speech or language impairment
Instructional Support: 
organize and plan
National Writing Next Standards: 
editing and revising
planning and organizing
transcribing
English Language Arts: 
Writing