The study examined the effectiveness of the use of a Questioning Instructional Routine in combination with an instructional graphic, a Question Exploration Guide, on students' reading and writing outcomes. The intervention incorporated elements of three comprehension instructional strategies, which are summarizing, visualizing, and questioning. The intervention comprised two 90-minute sessions taking place five days apart delivered by a researcher. The participants were 36 students in grades 9-12 in special education and general education classes from an urban school. Students were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Half of the students had learning disabilities, two-thirds were Hispanic or African-American, and slightly over one-third were receiving free or reduced lunch. Overall, students who participated in the intervention outperformed students in the control group on comprehension and writing outcomes. The authors also examined the effects of intervention on students with and without learning disabilities. For the comprehension outcome, the difference between the scores of students without learning disabilities in the intervention and control groups was statistically significant; however, the difference between the scores of students with learning disabilities in the intervention and control groups was not statistically significant. For the writing outcome, the post-test scores of students with and without learning disabilities in the intervention group were statistically different from the scores of the control students.
Effectiveness of question exploration to enhance students' written expression of content knowledge and comprehension
Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25, 271-289
IDEA Disability Category:
specific learning disability
electronic references and resources
opportunities to learn concepts
practice and reinforcement activities